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来源:重叠人生网    时间:2019-06-25


  now our already arrived the huangshan mountain scenic spot southernregion strategic place soup mouth. first introduces the huangshanmountain scenery in here to you the survey.

  huangshan mountain, is located south the chinese anhui province, isthe chinese nanling sierra the part, entire mountain areaapproximately 1,200 square kilometers. the huangshan mountain mountainsystem center-section, is huangshan mountain's essence are partial,also huangshan mountain scenic spot which must tour on us, areaapproximately 154 square kilometers. it within the boundaries ofhuangshan mountain city, south neighbour she county, huizhou area,xiuning county and yi xian, north continually yellow mountainous area;these five counties, the area also all belong to the huangshanmountain city jurisdiction.

  huangshan mountain in chinese tang dynasty before is called themountain, is the black appearance, because on the mountain therock blue black is blue black, the ancient gives it such name. thefable we chinese race's ancestor shaft yellow emperor in completes thearea south of yellow river to unify after industry, founds the chinesecivilization, arrives here to pick the medicine to build up dan, takesa bath in the hot spring, thus obtains enlightenment the immortal.tang dynasty renowned emperor ming huangli the prosperous baseextremely will believe this view, (747 years) has gotten downtogether the imperial edict in day valuable six years, the mountain willchange name huangshan mountain. the meaning is, this mountain isyellow emperor's mountain. from then on, huangshan mountain this nameone until now.

  the friends, you are not far thousand, even wan lidao here, must lookat huangshan mountain with own eyes the america? not is must feel atime of life to be joyful? yes, huangshan mountain is certainlybeautiful certainly beautiful, may say the day wonderful mountain, canascend a height to get a broad view it, has a look it with own eyes,truly is a life big happy event. before the very long long time, inthe long geologic history generation, the nature infinite strength,has molded the huangshan mountain that certainly beautiful elegantdemeanour and all sorts of unusual landscapes very much, makes onefall, is elated.

  huangshan mountain's america, first on beautifully in its high peak.here competes xiu, feng feng expresses admiration, respectively hasthe characteristic, each charm. the huangshan mountain high peak hashow many, but also does not have an accurate numeral. in the historysuccessively names has 36 big peaks, 36 small peaks, recent years alsohad 10 famous peaks to be selected "the huangshan mountain will". thismore than 80 mountain peaks high overwhelming majority above theelevation kilometer, lotus flower peak is all highest (1,864 meters),the light goes against is next (1,841 meters), the day all peak rankold three (1829.5 meters), these three big peaks and the graceful bearingoutstanding beginning letter peak (1,683 meters), are huangshanmountain's friends, even if mounts in these four high peaks, alsocalculated no empty this 行.

  under, i "four certainly" separately make again huangshan mountain anintroduction.

  said huangshan mountain "four certainly", arranges at first working asis the wonderful pine. yellow pinus montana wonderfully in what place?first is wonderfully in it does not have compared to obstinate strong vitality, you saw have had noalternative but to express admiration. generally said that, every hasthe earth the side to be able to leave the vegetation and the crops,but the yellow pine is long comes out from the hard yellow hillockrock. huangshan mountain everywhere all is growing the pine tree,their long peak, the long sheer precipice, is long in deep gully the glen,green and luxuriant, full of vitality. since 1100, they were splitopen like this from the rock, the root deep deeply gripped in the rockseam, did not fear barren was arid, did not fear the wind and thundersleet, natural, unyielding. you can say is not wonderful? next is,yellow pinus montana also wonderfully in it that unique naturalmodelling. from generally speaking, yellow pinus montana's needleshort and heavy dense, ye senong green, the trunk and branches tunelives, crown flat, appears one kind simply, steady, the vigorousimposing manner, but each pine tree, each pine tree, in theappearance, postureaccommodates, is mad in the rhyme, also is each every different,all some one kind of unusual america. the people according to them thedifferent shape and the charm, separately gave them to get up has beenappropriate from however the elegant interesting name, like received aguest the pine, the black tiger pine, liesdragon the pine, long zhuasong,searches korean pine, unity pine and so on. they are the huangshanmountain wonderful pine's representative.

  the strange stone, is constitutes the huangshan mountain beautifulscenery one "certainly". everywhere all may see in huangshan mountainwonderful shape strange rock, these strange stone appearancesinfinitely varied, some picture people, some picture thing, some havethe reflection certain myth fables and the historical story, lifelike,vivid were all interesting. in 121 famous stones, well-knownnesshigher some having "fly the stone", "immortal play chess", "the magpieascend the plum", "the monkey view sea", "immortal expose to the sunthe boots", "the penglai three islands", "the golden rooster arecalled the fontanel" and so on. these strange stones have are thecolossi, some marvelous exquisite; some independences become thescenery, some are several combinations or with the wonderful pineingenious knot synthesis scenery. also a strange stone because watchedthe position and the angle has changed, the appearance also had thechange, has become stone two scenery, if "the golden rooster wascalled the fontanel" also to call "five old heavens all", "the magpieto ascend the plum" also to be called "immortal to refer to the road"is moves step trades the scenery the reason. also some strangefactories, looked under the dissimilar condition, can produce cannotassociation, thus also had the different name, if "the monkey viewsea" also is called "the monkey to look peace" then is.

  also cloud sea. although also can see the cloud sea in the chineseother mingshan, but does not have to be able compared to on thehuangshan mountain cloud sea such magnificent sight and fluctuatesinfinitely. probably is this reason, huangshan mountain also has othername, calls "yellow sea". this certainly to be sure claims withoutjustification, has the history for the card. the ming dynasty has therenowned annals scientist's to name be pan to be permanent, has livedfor several dozens years in huangshan mountain, wrote 60 volumes bighead book —— huangshan mountain mountain wills, the book title hascalled "yellow sea". huangshan mountain's some scenic areas, theguesthouse and the multitudinous landscape naming, all special "thesea" has the connection with this, some landscapes if watch in thecloud sea, can appear clearly, flavor also foot. these also all provedthat, "yellow sea" this name is worthy of the name.

  finally, introduces the hot spring. our chang jiang and the tour hotspring is frontmountain huangshan mountain guesthouse hot spring, ancienttime calls the hot spring, gushes out from the purple pinnacle. hotspring scenic area names which with it, after enters the scenic areawhich the huangshan mountain south gate first arrives. hot springwater volume sufficient, the water temperature year to year maintainsabout 42, the water quality is good, and includes to the human bodybeneficial mineral substance, has the certain medical value, to theskin disease, the rheumatism and the digesting system disease, reallyhas the certain curative effect. but only can the bath, not be able todrink; crosses the cloud to say it may drink uses, is unscientific.

  actually, the huangshan mountain hot spring continues. the slope folds under the peak north huangshan mountain, but also some hot spring,calls the loose valley hut, ancient name tin spring. it with shannan'sguesthouse hot spring contour interval 7.5 kilometers, elevation alsonear, the north and south are symmetrical, coordinate with each otheracross a great distance. this also sufficed wonderfully. but becauseit is situated remote at present not to develop the use.

  besides "four certainly", huangshan mountain's waterfall, sunrise andsunset glow, also is extremely the magnificent sight and lovely.

  huangshan mountain, shan gaobei is steep, the brook rushes from themountain canyon gushes out, flies from the steep valley clift fallswith, forms the waterfall. "in the mountain night of rain, everywherehangs flies the spring", is the huangshan mountain attentive vividportrayal. the huangshan mountain waterfall are very many, magnificenthaving "kowloon waterfall", "person character waterfall" and "ropemade of twisted bamboo strips waterfall".

  huangshan mountain four seasons distinct: spring qingfeng dropgreen jade, thewild flower is brilliant; summer the cool piece, everywhere flies thewaterfall; autumn clear sky and fresh air, red leaves like rosy cloud;the cold winter is silverattireelementbinds, the ice sculpture jade builds.huangshan mountain truly is a traveling, the summer vacation, enjoysthe snow the exceedingly good destination.

  luoyang travel guide

  located in the west of henan province in central china, luoyang occupies quite an important geographic location. it is in the middle reaches of the yellow river and is encircled by mountains and plains. to its east and west are the hu lao pass and han gu pass which were essential domestic transportation junctions in ancient times. to its north, mengjin county was an import青少年癫痫病的早期症状ant ferry crossing of the yellow river. thus, luoyang was selected as the capital city by 13 dynasties starting from the xia dynasty (21st-16th century bc) in the 21st century bc. in the period following the han dynasty (206bc-220), and particularly during the sui (581-618) and tand (618-907) dynasties, the city experienced a period of growth and prosperity and ranked as one of the international metropolitans of the time.

  its long history endows luoyang with a profound sense of culture. the city is the cradle of chinese civilization where many chinese legends happened, such as nvwa patching the sky, dayu controlling flood and the chinese ancestor huangdi establishing the nation. the city is also famed as the 'poets capital' as poets and literates of ancient china often gathered there and left grand works, including 'book of wisdom' ('daode jing'), 'han history' ('han shu') and 'administrative theory of admonishing official' ('zi zhi tong jian'). religious culture once thrived here. taoism originated there and the first buddhist temple set up by the government was located there. luoyang is also the hometown of many of the scientific inventions of ancient china, such as the seismograph, armillary sphere, paper making, printing and the compass.

  luoyang has rich historical and cultural sites. the longmen grottoes are one of china's three most precious treasure houses of stone sculptures and inscriptions. the white horse temple is the first buddhist temple and is honored as the 'cradle of buddhism in china'. mt. mangshan is where ancient tombs of emperors, nobles and literates in the past dynasties collected. the luoyang ancient tombs museum is the world's first example of the kind and presents thousands of treasures discovered in the tombs. shaolin temple is the place of origin for chinese zen buddhism and the cradle of chinese martial art. landscapes in luoyang hold the same attraction as the cultural sites. white cloud mountain, funiu mountain, long yu wan national forest park, ji guan limestone cave and the yellow river xiaolangdi scenic area are all worth a visit. additionally, luoyang is particularly well known for its peonies. every year in april, the flowers blossom and attract tourists from all over the world. dining in luoyang is quite an enjoyable experience. various kinds of local dishes, including water feast, yan cai and others which use the famous yellow river carps as an ingredient, together with the uniquely flavored soups, will greatly satisfy your taste buds. luoyang's local specialties such as palace lanterns, bronze vessels and tri-colored glazed potteries will no doubt delight your eyes and offer you ideal souvenirs. being a modern city as well, luoyang has hotels of all standards which provide you quite a broad choice for your stay. most of the hotels have reasonable room prices and perfect services.

  transportation is well developed in luoyang. beijiao airport has many domestic flights extending to many large cities in other provinces. it's also very easy to get to luoyang by train because one of china's most important railway lines long hai railway traverses the city and connects most cities in east, west and central china. the convenient city buses and taxies can carry you around the city. near the railway station, special tourist buses can take you to the tourist spots in the suburban areas of the city.

  luoyang, a charming city filled with the fragrance of peonies and the primitive atmosphere of ancient civilization, is waiting and welcoming guests from all over the world. putting the city into the list of your exploration in china, you will get far more than what you expect.

  the longmen grottos

  the longmen grottos are on the yihe river bank, some 12 kilometers from ancient luoyang city, about 30 minutes' drive. it is one of the three most important buddhist sculptures and carvings in china. the

  longmen grottos enjoy a good location where two mountains confront each other between which flows the yihe river.

  the grotto was first carved in north wei dynasty, over 1500 years ago and expanded through the succeeding east and west wei dynasties, north qi dynasty, north zhou dynasty, sui and tang dynasties and was finally completed in north song dynasty. over 500 years' renovation and expansion have created the prestigious world cultural site. the most significant chiseling activities happened in the tang and north wei dynasties, which lasted over 150 years.

  spanning a length of around 1 kilometer on the hillside along the yihe river, the niches resemble dozens of honeycombs dotting the area. there are about 2.100 grottoes and niches, over 40 crematory urns, 3,600 inscribed stone tablets and over 100,000 buddhist images and statues. the largest one is 17 meters high while the smallest is a tiny as 2 cm. one third of the complex are works of the north wei dynasty. these masterpieces are the binyang cave, and lianhua( lotus cave). the impressive qianxi temple, fengxian temple, wanfo cave( ten thousand buddhist cave) are the highlights of the tang dynast's carvings. the longmen grottos are of great value in world sculpture history and it has been listed in the world cultural heritage site by the unesco. to protect such a valuable heritage site, the chinese government as well as some influential world cultural organizations are trying hard to share this site with the whole word. a large-scaled renovation was undertaken in XX to keep the grottos in good condition.

  white horse temple

  located at the 12 kilometers east of luoyang city, the white horse temple is one of the oldest buddhist temples in china and is renowned as the cradle of chinese buddhism. although it is not the largest nor the most beautiful buddhism monument in china, this temple with its large number of buddhism items housed there, is well worth a trip.

  an interesting legend related to the temple goes that a white horse carried the first buddhist script from india here in ancient time hence the name white horse temple. history records that the site was original the place used by the second han emperor-liu zhuang as a summer resort and for study. in 68 ad, when buddhism reached its heyday in india, two indian monks brought buddhist scriptures to luoyang on the back of a white horse. the emperor, who was a devout buddhism believer, built the temple to house the scriptures and named it white horse temple. it was said that there were once thousands of monks living in the temple. it was even used as a refugee sanctuary during the social turmoil of wang mang in the eastern han dynasty.

  the two monks who brought scriptures from india were buried here. many monks from outside china have visited the monk and many of them have spent the rest of their time in that temple. the famous tang dynasty monk-xuanzang started his 17 years long pilgrimage trip to indian from the temple. after returning, xuanzhang became the abbot of the white horse temple, where he disseminated the scriptures of buddhism for the rest of his life.

  guanlin temple

  at the end of guanlin nan lu, guanlin temple was built to commemorate the great general guanyu of the state of shu during the three kingdoms period. in the romance of three kingdoms, the shu general guanyu was defeated, captured and executed by sunquan, the ruler of the state of wu. fearing revenge from guanyu’s blood brother liubei who was the ruler of the state of shu, sunquan ordered to send guanyu’s head to caocao-ruler of wei in an attempt to deflect the responsibility for the death. caocao, however, was an admirer of guan's loyalty and bravery. he ordered a wooden body be carved to accompany the head before guanyu was buried.

  very little is known about when the temple was first built. the complex was developed during the ming dynasty and was underwent several renovation and expansion during the succeeding qing dynasty. it's now comprised of halls, temples, pavilions and guan's tomb. some valuable stone tablets with elegant calligraphies are also found here. the place is very popular among the locals who worship the valorous general by burning sticks of incense.

  museum of ancient tombs

  an interesting old saying goes that suzhou and hangzhou are good places to live, while luoyang is a good place to die. many of the ancient emperors, princes, generals and other public celebrities took this advice and left orders that they were to be buried in luoyang after their death. there are over 20 ancient tombs dating from the han dynasty to the north song dynasty. a museum was built at the site where many ancient tombs were excavated.

  the museum is at the mang hill in the north suburb of the city, about 8 kilometers from the city center. covering an area of around 3 hectare, it has two parts: the underground and above ground parts. the above ground part contains a han-style gate, some halls. tomb models from the stone age to the han dynasty, restored funerary objects and funeral rituals are displayed in the eastern hall.

  the underground section is a tomb groups site which is about 7 meters underground. there are north and south song dynasties hall, wei and jin dynasties hall, tang and song dynasties hall and a hall for refined items excavated from the tombs. many of the vividly painted murals, valuable relics and a number of pottery figures are on display here. visitors can also find the models of ancient tombs. 22 ancient tombs restored to their original styles are displayed here.

  luoyang museum

  luoyang served as the capitals for a long period of time. history has left the place a large number of historical出现晕倒、口吐白沫现象,这是患上什么疾病了? rare relics. many of these rarely seem items can be found at the luoyang museum. the museum is located at the city center, very easy to find.

  the museum's exhibition center displays refined ancient items including bronze wares, ceramics, gold and silver artifacts and jade. these exhibitions offer a good illustration of the city's grand past.

  luoyang peony

  luoyang is renowned as: the city of peony. the city has long been famous for its beautiful peony flowers. peony, has been called the king of flowers for its gorgeous charm and unbelievably beauty. the flower has been a symbol of grace in china. ancient chinese poets once compared peony with the beautiful and elegant ladies and thought the two were equally pleasant to the eye.

  luoyang has a long history of planting peony. peony growing began to prevail in the region in the ancient sui dynasty, over one thousand years ago. in the tang dynasty, many famous gardens for peony were built and peony was planted on a massive scale. luoyang became the country's peony cultivation and trade center in the song dynasty. luoyang peony is international famous for the peony. luoyang's unique climate is well suited to its peony growing culture. luoyang is located in the temperate zone with favorable and humid climate all year around.

  luoyang peony is well-known for its big flowers and many varieties. each year, in late spring when the peonies are in full blossom, thousands of visitors swarm to the city to enjoy the stunningly beautiful flowers. the international peony festival held here annually adds even more fame to luoyang's peony.

  ladies, gentlemen:

  today we are going to tour the scenic spot is the yellow fruit treewaterfall. the yellow fruit tree waterfall is china first in thewaterfall, also is in the world one of in admiration of somebody'sfame big waterfalls. in november, 1982, examined and appr oved afterthe people's republic of china state council, the yellow fruit treewaterfall has been listed as the national key scenery scenic spotarea.

  the yellow fruit tree waterfall is apart from the provincial capitalguiyang 137 kilometers, is located west guizhou province townninghsien and guanling county bordering on place hits the nation riverbranch the clear water river bank. rides in a carriage from guiyang tothe yellow fruit tree, approximately needs about for a half hour thetime.

  the yellow fruit tree big waterfall already arrived, you looked, thiswas already the known far and wide chinese first big waterfall.

  the yellow fruit tree waterfall height 68 meters, in the waterfall thewaterfall 6 meters, alwayshigh 74 meters, the width 81 meters, the summerfall flood rises suddenly in addition, waterfall like yellow river butactually leans, the cliff trembles, valley bangthunder, about ten miles,also can hear to its roaring; as a result of the fluent formidableimpulse, the mist which splashes may fill the air above severalhundred meters, causes to be situated the border and the downtownwhich the cliff goes against left side of the waterfall frequently themist which splashes is covered. the tourist says it "the silver rainto sprinkle the golden street". the winter the water is spring small,the waterfall then divides into 35 to go against from the shorehangs down, looks by far, that pure white shui lianpiao however under,raises sprinkles, if silk fabrics dances in the breeze, if theimmortal flutters lifts, like virtuous young woman gauze…… . for several hundred years, the yellow fruit tree waterfall grandappearance continuously exclaimed in surprise for many writersscholars. the qing dynasty guizhou renowned calligrapher, "summerpalace" three characters topic volume yan yinliang in "looks theantithetical couplet which the pavilion on the water" the topicwrites: "the clear water like cotton and kapok, does not need the bowto bow cotton wool self-scattering. the sunset glow resembles thebrocade, he xusuo weaves the day production ", was the image butvividly summarized the yellow fruit tree waterfall grand scenery.

  now, we arrived the waterfall dropping place —— rhinoceros deep pool.under water this deep pool because the fable bright rhinoceros hidesacquires fame. has the god rhinoceros, nobody has seen, but the deeppool water mystical is profound, until now still, any person settlesdown nearby the deep pool, can recollectionsassociationflies fast. the drizzle which whenthe cloudless day morning 10 now and then about 4 pm, as a result ofthe sunlight refraction, you also may penetrate waterfall impactsplash, saw raise the seven colors of the spectrum rainbow from thedeep deep pool, cause your fresh grand appearance to be unparalleled,feeling of the gorgeous illustrious day.

  why does this waterfall give a name is called the yellow fruit treewaterfall, what waterfalls but isn't called other other? according tothe folklore, is because nearby the waterfall on has big huang jueshu,according to the local voice, and "the fruit" the pronunciationis same, therefore the people on the custom called it yellow fruittree, this is one view. also some one view, nearby the fable very longbefore waterfall farmers all liked planting the yellow fruit, nearbythe waterfall on have a big yellow orchard, therefore on called thiswaterfall it the yellow fruit tree waterfall.

  other famous big waterfalls compare with the world in, the yellowfruit tree big waterfall although does not have the african victoriabig waterfall, a north america nepal asia carat big waterfall, thevenezuelan anheer big waterfall like that broad, profound and isgrand, but, the yellow fruit tree big waterfall is innate it unusuallyplace, it is in the world occupies the karst area in the waterfall,also is the magnificent waterfall. this big waterfall on the pictureis together the strange magnet, in its ground, underground, aquatic,in the water also is adsorbing a succession of abundant posturegraceful view. most mysterious, is hides in the big waterfall halfwaycliff porch cavern, because outside hole caneradish climbsattaches, shui guazhucurtain, therefore says "shui liandong". this is in the world otherbig waterfall no unusual landscapes.

  ladies, gentlemen, "shui liandong" already arrived, this shui liandongthe span 134 meters, it by 6 holes windows, 3 stocks vauclusian springand 6 channels is composed. according to the chinese myth storyreorganization large-scale tv serial "monkey" center shui liandong aplay, is here photographs.

  this is the first hole window, its position lowest, to rhinoceros deeppool water surface only 40 meters, but hole window then is mostspacious, some several meters widths, position when first, twowaterfalls, big water two waterfalls cheng shuilian, completely sealsup the hole window; the water hour then the grading pulls open, isdifferent, pities the picture to be allowed at will opensgathers the windowblind from several meters to several meters.

  this is the second hole window, it leaves about the first hole windowonly 4 meters. this is a quiet world, is known as the crystal palace.it is shui liandong heart is partial, length 11 meters, height 9meters, width 3 meters. the roadside has a water seepage, limpid isbright, the water elder maintains at a water level. the hole goesagainst is being hanging many clockbreaststone, clockbreaststone on also has theprecious curl stone in mai ganzhuang. on the hole wall also is hanginginnumerable shi man, the stone curtain.

  this is the threehole window, it to outsidesuddenly, likes the balcony very much.this hole window has 1 meter high, 3 meter long, outside encircles hasthe guard rail, the tourist stands behind the guard rail may put out ahand to trace the waterfall, therefore the people here called it"traces waterfall".

  ladies, gentlemen, now we must tour the landscape is the rhinocerosdeep pool canyon landscape. you looked that, from the rhinoceros waistdownward, is together connected falls together the water, is in turnrhinoceros deep pool, three beaches, horse's hoof beach, oil fish welland so on. in this a succession of beach deep pool, is the headnaturally is the rhinoceros deep pool, its deep 17.7 meters,frequently for splash the bead cover, the fog bead submerge. so longas has the sunlight, the waterfall splashes on the bead frequently tohang seven colors riotous rainbows, moves along with the person,unpredictable.

  why can the yellow fruit tree waterfall like this? this is because theyellow fruit tree waterfall is situated at the karst area, is createsby the fluent corrosive nature. upstream when traces to the source thecorrosion crackspot arrives, the river water along the karst crevassewashes out, dissolveseclipse, flushes the eclipse, the abrasion, the pipelinegradually expands, forms does not fall the hole and the buried river;after the surface river pours into falls the water-dunnel the watervolume proportion gradually to increase, has formed the karst areaunique raidsseizes, pours into in the open jet falls the water-dunnelplace, forms falls the water-dunnel type waterfall. flushes theeclipse and the strategy avalanche function along with the current ofwater unceasingly intensifies, the underground river cavern is moreand more big, thereupon dryvalley grew along the surface has had thestring distribution the shaft and the roof louvre window, theyunceasingly expanded, the combination, broke down collapses, hascreated the nowadays grand magnificent sight yellow fruit tree bigwaterfall and the waterfall downriver sincere precipitous canyon.

  i hoped you lift your photographic camera, pats down the yellow fruittree waterfall, keeps in your memory, propagandizes for more people,because, the yellow fruit tree waterfall is china, simultaneous癫痫疾病怎么治疗好ly alsobelongs to the world.


  the exhibition of inscribed bamboo tablets of wu kingdom of the three kingdoms at changsha ladies and gentlemen,

  welcome to changsha museum. well be here to visit “the exhibition of inscribed bamboo tablets of wu kingdom of the three kingdoms at changsha and the years of unearthed most valuable cultural relics”. i hope my explanation can satisfy you!

  now, we are in the first exhibition hall. here, it adopts panoramic technique, and restores the site of unearthing bamboo tablets of wu kingdom. in 1996, during july to november, in the southeast of wu yi square, team up with ping he tang department. the exhumations were carried on by changsha relics work teams. they unearth 61 archaic wells during the

  warring states period and the ming and qing dynasty, and found out 3000 kinds of relics, like copper, iron bamboo, wood, ceramics, and so on. to people’s astonishment, in the no.22 archaic well, they found lots of bamboo tablets and wooden

  slips. after confirming, they are the relics of sun wu in three kingdoms 1700 years ago. these patches of relics would replenish the lacked historical materials of three kingdoms exactly. our country once had four discoveries: the oracle bone inscription of yin, bamboo tablets and wooden slips of tunxu in northwest china, cultural books of dunhuang stone room, files of qing cabinet. bamboo tablets of wu kingdom of the three kingdoms at changsha can be mentioned in the same breath with the four discoveries, and become the searching subject of international academia.

  everybody! please look at the cross section reconstruction of the no.22 archaic well. its upper part of opening was damaged when it was excavating. this is an irregular circular shape vertical shaft; the bottom has a bag form likely. the opening of the well has a length 3.5 m from south to north, 3.1 m from east to west, and 5.6 m in depth. the opening is covered with pure red brown color clay, 1.5 m deeper of which is the bamboo tablets and wooden slips layer. the bamboo tablets and wooden slips layer is 50 cm thick in center and 20 cm thin on all sides, piled up with slope form. the ropes tied the bamboo tablets and wooden slips have become rotten, but we can see they were buried by bundles at that time. there are more than 10,000 pieces of bamboo tablets and wooden slips by the initial statistics. the second layer is the gray brown clay layer of 3.1 m thick, among them mix up

  with lots of bamboo wood scrapes, grass scrapes, leaves, fragmentary bricks, pottery and porcelain and so on. at the bottom of the well is another small well, which has square wooden frame. the four corners are nailed by a stick of spile inlayed with two wooden boards as the well wall. the circle of the well is 93 cm long, 58 cm tall. the function of this small well is probably for gathering the groundwater from all sides of the well, and then put forward to pour out with water pitcher and other tools in order to maintain the well space dry. this is the living photo taken by the time of excavating.

  analyzing the structure and relics of the well no.22, it is an ancient well for storing food. the climate of changsha is so hot, wet and rainy that the food is easy to be rot, but the circumstance under the ground of 10 m depth is just like as a modern refrigerator. the archaeological discoveries approved that people had used this storing method from the time of shang dynasty.

  you may ask that, why were the bamboo tablets of wu kingdom buried in the well? there are two statements. the first one considered that in the period of three kingdoms, there were so many wars, the suddenly burst-out war made people bury them here in a hurry. the other considered that to bury them in the well may be a way of dealing with the records in the past.

  now please look at the photo. this is the photo of unearthing the no.22 well. we can see that the bamboo tablets and wooden slips were soaked in the mud. why can they be kept intact for over 1700 years? one of the important reasons is that the ground water level in changsha was very high, and the bamboo tablets and wooden slips were soaked in the water. besides, they were buried deeply; they can be sealed up wall. with these, they can be kept intact for over 1700 years.

  next, let’s visit the second exhibition room. in this room we can get the detailed introduction of the bamboo tablets and wooden slips. before we visit, i have a question to ask. do you know whether the words on the bamboo tablets and wooden slips were written or carved on them? with the question, let’s look at the photo of the pottery figurine. this pottery figurine was unearthed in a western jin tomb in jinpenling in changsha in 1950s. on the left of the photo there is a man handing a wooden slip and reading something, the man on the right who were holding a hair pencil in a hand and a wooden slip in the other was writing something. the pottery figurine shows us the condition of ancients writing on the bamboo tablets and wooden slips. now, we can say, the word on the bamboo tablets and slips were written on them. did you guess it?

  to see another set of photos. this is a hair pencil unearthed from one of the tombs of the warring state at zuojiagong mountain of changsha in 1954. its shaft is long and small but easy to be broken. on the side of it there is a bamboo pipe used for containing the pen when it is collected and preserved. this is an ink stone with little ink blocks near it. here also remains a bronze chopping knife which is used for the calligrapher to make inscribed bamboo and wooden slips and correct writing mistakes. this is a set of photos of calligraphy tools discovered in no.168 tomb in jinan city of former capital of chu state. in addition to this, there are 6 pieces of wooden slips without character. this is also the most complete and most typical set of han dynasty’s stationery ever seen up to now. uniting our ancient people calculates the number of the inscribed bamboo tablets and wooden slips are not “slice”, but “jin”. it is recorded in history that the 1st emperor of qin dynasty did not have a rest until he finished reading over 120 jin of memorial to throne and inscribed bamboo and wooden slips.

  please notice the following brief tablet about information of the inscribed bamboo and wooden slips unearthed from all parts of the nation from this century. among this, the column in red character is the number of the inscribed bamboo and wooden slips excavated from changsha this time. the number this time has exceeded the total amount of that unearthed from all parts of the nation these years. therefore, it is named as “the surprising wonder of the world”and “one of the most important archaeological discoveries of this century.”

  it is well known that document history in the three kingdom period handed down is very rare.”the annals of three kingdom”by chenshou in xijin has 65 volumes, among which there are 30 volumes of wei book, 15 volumes of shu book, 20 volumes of wu book with total of more than 1 million characters. over the years, the unearthed inscribed bamboo slips and wooden tablets in nationwide archaeology is also rarely seen and only exist tens of pieces in anhui, jiangxi and hubei .but nowadays in changsha, the total number of the excavation of the inscribed bamboo from wu state in three kingdom period reaches 10 thousand pieces for just one time and the total wordage reaches more than 3 million if counted with 20 words in each piece. these character materials greatly surpass the total wordage in that of the “annals of three kingdom”, which offers abundant material for the study of social economy, political system, inscribed bamboo and volume system, history and geography and also fill the vacancy of historic works. we can forecast that the discovery of inscribed bamboo slips from wu state in changsha will surely influence many aspects of the chinese historic study and anew examining and verifying the past final conclusion.

  well, let us have a look at this map. though the series archaeological excavation around the “wuyi square ”by our archaeological workers, we have preliminarily defined the region of the ancient changsha .it extends northward to “lao zhaobi ”, southward to “pozi street”, eastward to “cai’e road”and westward to “shanghe street”which shaped rectangle. and the center of changsha is today’s “wuyi square, which, we can say, hasn’t changed basically nearly 3000years.

  the unearthed inscribed bamboo slips and wooden tablets for this time, if according to their shape, they can be distributed to big and small inscribed bamboo slips, wooden tablets and so on; if according to their use, they can be distributed to five kinds:

  the first kind is document. it can be subdivided into two parts. one is the land rent document with 0.5m long, 2.5cm wide and 100 to 200 chinese characters on. the other is the official document which recorded the distribution and exchanging of money, crops, and goods among different governmental setups. please look at this smaller slice. it is a classified label. it shows us a monthly report recorded by two officials named huang wei and pan lv in the first year of jia he period.

  second, about judicature, which recorded some detail contents and economic cases, such as the trying, appealing and reexamining? what’s on this wooden tablet is an individual case about a du you. du you is a kind of government official. he was sentenced to death for his corruptness of salt, but he was not convinced and appealed to a high court. however, the reexamining did not make the judge change. so he had nothing to do but accept.

  the third 台湾癫痫治疗医院kind is directory, somewhat like the household and registered books today. let’s look at this slice. here the chinese character “rong li”was a name of some place in changsha. this whole sentence means there is a man named he qin, 55 years old, lived in rong li. his dukedom is gong cheng. and here "suan yi" means can be counted as one of a taxpayer;" xing liang zu" refers to whose legs had been cut off. the directory served as a registered permanent resident, which put down people’s name, age, position and something we can’t find in our registered permanent resident---physical condition.

  the fourth one is calling card. it mainly referred to paying respect, giving gift and administrative affairs, as visiting cards we use today.

  the last kind is the wooden tablet on account which recorded the managing account of departments belongs to changsha government.

  please look at these historical relics again. this blue and green porcelain in the three kingdoms and tow jin dynasties were discovered in zoumalou ancient well. look, their glazed colors is sparking and crystal-clear, the decorate are simple and element. the second among them is called "chichen-head potting", the potting is coronal form, guides the neck and proceeded high, and the modeling of it is very beautiful. these potting were very popular in jin dynasty. they were used as pitcher and chalice.

  everybody has seen many photos, has listened to so much explanation, now we come to see the original of the bamboo slips, wooden tablets or slips for writing.

  now, you see in the pyramid shape exhibition cupboard, it is a bamboo slips and wooden tablets or slips original that explored in zoumalou in the ancient well of the building this time. the bamboo slips and wooden tablets or slips are the material that the ancient remains of our country come down to write. among them the narrow and long bamboo, the wood chips are called "jian", the generous wood chips called "du". you must distinguish one from the other, not wood make are named "du", what bamboo make named "jian". jian has the wooden one, too. ok, the right side of i there set some inscribed wooden tablets, the middle are heavy inscribed wooden slips. in the left, they are bamboo slips that pressed under the transparent glass. the characters on the bamboo slips and wooden tablets or slips are simple and clear. it’s easily can be distinguished. the script is the transition from lishu to regular script.

  these kinds of inscribed wooden slips and inscribed wooden tablets are made in shirt woods. the quality of these trees is pre-pressing. it is intact to keep. the raw materials of inscribed bamboo slips is bamboo whose quality is loose, apt and crooked and out of shape, so it in displaying and need press when exhibiting. the ancients have several procedures to make the bamboo slips. first, they cut the bamboo into bamboo slips, and then burnished them in order to make them smooth, these smooth slips called “jian”. but people could not write on the wet bamboo slips. then, they roasted dry the wet bamboo slips. while roasting, there was some water steaming out. the water looked like sweet, so people called those “sweet qing”or “sha qing”.

  the “guo ling ding yang”of wen tianxiang said that “since ancient times, who has no death? remaining sincere heart to finish ‘sweet qing’.

  bamboo tablets of wu kingdom of the three kingdoms at changsha has very strong historical value, article value and scientific value, so the provincial leaders, city leaders and related experts decided to set up an exhibition of bamboo tablets and wooden slips.


  the red star pavilion in the pipasha park, the kansheng pavilion in the eling park, and a place called yikeshu on the nanshan mountain are vintage points for observing the nocturnal scenes of the mountain city of chongqing. at night the entire city is inundated in an ocean of lights, which form a colorful three-dimensional painting, with waves of the yangtze and jialing rivers glistening against the moonlit, star spangled sky.

  sites of the provisional capital

  chongqing figured importantly in modem chinese history. during the war of resistance against japan, it was the "provisional capital" of china under the kuomintang rule from november 1937 to october 1945. vestiges of that period are still there in and around the city. these include the red crag village and 50 zengjiayan, as well as chiang kai-shek's mansion, guiyuan garden, linyuan garden, and the mansion of c.c. kong, the embassies of various countries to china, as well as former residences of important politicians, generals and cultural figures.

  martyrs' mausoleum at mount gele

  the former headquarters, radio station and prison of the bureau of investigation and statistics of the military council (a colossal secret service of the kuomintang) at the foot of the gele mountain in shapingba district have become the mausoleum for those who died a martyr's death there in china's dark days. in the dying years of world war 11, it was the site of the "sino0us institute for cooperation in special technology".

  dazu grottoes

  the dazu grottoes in the county of the same name is best known for the stone carvings on the baodingshan and beishan mountains, which are fine example of grotto sculpture in the late years of chinese feudalism. the sculptures, done in fastidious chisel work and gracious imagery, are marked by a new sculptural language that eschews religious taboos and espouses true life.

  yangtze river's three gorges

  sailong down the yangtze from chongqing to yichang allows visitors to see the spectacular scenery of the three gorges along with its splendid cultural heritage and fabled local folklore. the cruise, which combines sightseeing with scientific, artistic and folklore exploration, is a national-caliber tourist program. the 193-km-long three gorges, consisting of the majestic qutangxia, statuesque wuxia and ferocious xilingxia gorges, is one of and ferocious xilongxia gorges, is one of the world's major canyons. along the way there are such scenic attractions as the fengdu mountain. baidi city, shibao village, zhang fel's temple, qu yuan's temple, and the three gorges dam.

  lesser three gorges

  the daning river is the largest yangtze tributary, which rises in the southern side of the daba mountain and flows for 250km before emptying itself into the yangtze at the western entrance to the wuxia gorge. the lesser three gorges on the daning river, a 50km-long affair covering the longmenxia, bawuxia and dicuixia gorges in the lower reaches of the river, is billed as one of china's 40 best scenic resorts thanks to its gorgeous mountains, elegant peaks, turbulent rapids, limpid water, exotic rock imagery and serene scenery.

  diaoyu city, hechuan

  established in 1242, or the 2nd year of the chunyou reign of the southern song, diaoyu city covers 2.5 square km up the diaoyu mountain on the southern shore of the jialing river in hechuan city's heyang town. in 1258, the mongols launched a three-way attack on the song, and in february the next year diaoyu city found itself besieged. the song army mounted a valiant counterattack that last3ed for 36 years, and made world war history by rebuffing a strong enemy with a weak force. this prompted some european historians to laud diaoyu city as the "mecca of the east" and "where god broke his whip". the ruins of the ancient battlefield of diaoyu city are well kept there.

  jinyun mountain

  nicknamed "less mount emei", jinyun mountain is a national scenic resort 55km from downtown chongqing.

  furong cave, wulung

  the furong (hibiscus) cave is located by the furong river in wulung county. the main part of the cave is 2,700 metres in length and 3.7 square metres in area. the splendid cave is the most impressive. housed in it are nearly 30 varieties of stalactites chiseled into every manner of exotic imagery by the cunning labor of nature. major attractions are gold throne hall, leifeng pagoda and sky-reaching jade pillar.

  chongqing museum

  located at pipashan street, the chongqing museum is in the possession of more than 100,000 cultural artifacts, including 10,000 or so valuable ones.

  chongqing nature museum

  local natural history and fauna and flora samples are on display in the chongqing nature museum in beibei district, which includes a display room for dinosaurs that have been founding sichuan.

  other scenic attractions

  other scenic attractions include the south and north hot springs, red crag village, simian (four-face) mountain, jinfo (golden buddha) mountain, earth's chasm at tianjing gorge, and heavenly crate at xiaozhai village.

  three gorges tourist festival

  time: june every year

  what's on: cruise on the three gorges of the yangtze river, the ghost city at fengdu, dazu grottoes, shibao village, zhang fei's temple, baidi city at fengjie and lesser three gorges. other activities include float parade, full-length variety show and tourist business talks.

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